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The agreement also provides for a transitional period, which lasts until 31 December 2020 and can be extended once by mutual agreement. During the transition period, EU law will continue to apply to the UK (including participation in the European Economic Area, the Single Market and the Customs Union) and the UK will continue to contribute to the EU budget, but the UK will not be represented in EU decision-making bodies. The transition period will give businesses time to adjust to the new situation and give THE UK and EU governments time to negotiate a new EU-UK trade deal. [17] [18] United Kingdom nationals and Union citizens, their family members who are United Kingdom nationals or Union citizens and their family members who are neither retain the right to reside in the host Member State (Article 13). The host Member State may not restrict or make dependent dependants with a view to obtaining, maintaining or losing rights of residence (Article 13). Persons with valid documents do not need entry and exit visas or equivalent formalities and are allowed to leave or enter the host country in a simple manner (art. 14). In the event that the host Member State requires that `family members who join the Union citizen or the United Kingdom national at the end of the transition period obtain an entry visa`, the host Member State is required to issue the necessary visas free of charge in the appropriate institutions under an accelerated procedure (Article 14). The agreement also deals with the issuance of permanent residence permits during and after the transition period and their restrictions. In addition, it clarifies the rights of employees and the self-employed and provides for the recognition and identification of professional qualifications. As regards the Irish border issue, a Northern Ireland Protocol (the “backstop”) annexed to the Agreement sets out a fallback position that will only enter into force if effective alternative arrangements cannot be demonstrated before the end of the transition period.

If this happens, the UK will follow the EU`s common external tariff and Northern Ireland will retain some aspects of the single market until such a demonstration is achieved. None of the parties can unilaterally withdraw from this customs union. The aim of this backstop agreement is to avoid a “hard” border in Ireland where customs controls are necessary. [19] According to evidence presented by the lobby group “British in Europe” (which represents UK citizens residing in EU countries) before the House of Commons Brexit Select Committee in June 2020, “up to 23 EU member states have still had to implement systems to document the future rights of the estimated 1.2 million British citizens already living on the continent. who are unaware of their future rights and obligations”. [44] “The UK launched its [registration] system for EU citizens last March [2020], where more than 3.3 million people granted predetermined or established status to remain in the country after Brexit,” the committee was told. [44] The Convention defines and regulates the personal reach of citizens, family members, frontier workers, host States and nationals. Article 11 deals with continuity of residence and article 12 deals with non-discrimination (i.e.

it would be prohibited to discriminate on grounds of nationality). The Declaration on the Future Relationship between the European Union and the United Kingdom, also known as the Political Declaration, is a non-binding declaration negotiated and signed in conjunction with the binding and broader Withdrawal Agreement in the context of the Withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union (EU), colloquially known as Brexit, and the planned end of the transition period. The agreement defines the goods, services and associated processes. It argues that any goods or services lawfully placed on the market before leaving the Union may continue to be made available to consumers in the United Kingdom or in the Member States of the European Union (Articles 40 and 41). The European Union also approved the ratification of the agreement on 29 September. January 2020[40] and the Council of the European Union approved the conclusion of the agreement by email on 30 January 2020[41]. [42] Accordingly, the European Union also deposited its instrument of ratification of the Agreement on 30 January 2020, which concluded the Agreement[43] and allowed it to enter into force at 23.m GMT on 31 January 2020 at the time of the United Kingdom`s withdrawal from the Union. The inclusion of the deal in the House of Commons ranged from cold to hostile and the vote was delayed by more than a month. Prime Minister May won a no-confidence motion against her own party, but the EU refused to accept further changes. The Withdrawal Agreement also contains provisions allowing the United Kingdom to let the United Kingdom link the Statute of the European Schools to the United Kingdom by the Convention and the accompanying rules for accredited European Schools until the end of the last academic year of the transition period, i.e.

until the end of the 2020-2021 spring semester. [20] First, there is a general breakdown of all UK agricultural support up to a maximum amount to be determined by an EU-UK AGREEMENT by the Joint Committee – Articles 7(2) and 8. However, in the absence of an agreement, the exception must be suspended (Article 8, last paragraph), which seems to place the UK in a less than powerful negotiating position. The Withdrawal Agreement provides for a transition period until 31 September. December 2020, when the UK will remain in the single market to ensure smooth trade until a long-term relationship is agreed. If no agreement is reached by that date, the UK will leave the single market on 1 January 2021 without a trade agreement. A non-binding political declaration on the future relationship between the EU and the UK is closely linked to the Withdrawal Agreement. The agreement was revised as part of the Johnson Ministry`s renegotiation in 2019. The amendments adapt about 5% of the text. [22] The agreement covers issues such as money, citizens` rights, border arrangements and dispute settlement. It also includes a transition period and an overview of the future relationship between the UK and the EU.

It was published on 14 November 2018 and was the result of the Brexit negotiations. The agreement was approved by the heads of state and government of the remaining 27 EU countries[9] and the British government of Prime Minister Theresa May, but met with resistance in the British Parliament, whose approval was required for ratification. The consent of the European Parliament would also have been required. On 15 January 2019, the House of Commons rejected the Withdrawal Agreement by 432 votes to 202. [10] The House of Commons again rejected the agreement on March 12, 2019 by 391 votes to 242[11] and rejected it a third time on March 29, 2019 by 344 votes to 286. .

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