The desire for a more ambitious goal was maintained in the deal – with the promise to further limit global temperatures to 1.5°C. Professor John Shepherd of the National Centre for Oceanography at the University of Southampton says the deal contains welcome aspirations, but few people know how difficult it will be to achieve the goals. Ultimately, all parties have acknowledged the need to “avoid, minimize and treat loss and damage,” but in particular, any mention of indemnification or liability is excluded.  The Convention also adopts the Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage, an institution that will seek to answer questions on how to classify, address and share responsibility for losses.  Date of signature of the Agreement on the 5th. In October 2016, US President Barack Obama said: “Even if we achieve all the goals. We will only reach part of where we need to go. He also said that “this agreement will help delay or avoid some of the worst consequences of climate change. It will help other countries reduce their emissions over time and set bolder targets as technology advances, all within a robust transparency system that allows each country to assess the progress of all other nations.
  The Paris Agreement is a historic environmental agreement adopted by almost all countries in 2015 to combat climate change and its negative impacts. The agreement aims to significantly reduce global greenhouse gas emissions in order to limit the increase in global temperature this century to 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels, while looking for ways to limit the increase to 1.5 degrees. The agreement contains commitments from all major emitting countries to reduce their pollution from climate change and to strengthen these commitments over time. The Compact provides an opportunity for developed countries to support developing countries in their efforts to mitigate and adapt to climate change, and provides a framework for transparent monitoring, reporting and strengthening of individual and collective climate objectives of countries. The aim of the agreement is to reduce global warming as described in Article 2 and improve the implementation of the UNFCCC by: Currently, 197 countries – each nation on earth, the last signatory being war-torn Syria – have adopted the Paris Agreement. Of these, 179 have solidified their climate proposals with formal approval – including the US for now. The only major emitting countries that have not yet officially joined the deal are Russia, Turkey and Iran. The Paris Agreement is the first universal and legally binding global climate agreement adopted at the Paris Climate Change Conference (COP21) in December 2015.
Now, that future could be in jeopardy as President Donald Trump prepares to withdraw the U.S. from the deal — a decision he can only legally make after the next presidential election — as part of a broader effort to dismantle decades of U.S. environmental policy. Instead of abandoning the fight, the leaders of cities, states, businesses and citizens of the country and around the world are happily stepping up their efforts to advance the clean energy advances needed to achieve the goals of the agreement and curb dangerous climate change – with or without the Trump administration. In the run-up to the Paris meeting, the United Nations asked countries to submit plans detailing how they wanted to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. These plans were technically referred to as Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs). Up to 10. In December 2015, 185 countries submitted measures to limit or reduce their greenhouse gas emissions by 2025 or 2030. The United States announced in 2014 its intention to reduce its emissions by 26 to 28 percent below 2005 levels by 2025. To achieve this goal, the country`s Clean Power Plan called for limiting existing and projected emissions from power plants. China, the country with the largest total greenhouse gas emissions, has set a goal of reaching its peak in carbon dioxide emissions “by 2030 and doing everything possible to reach an early peak.” Chinese officials have also sought to reduce carbon dioxide emissions per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) by 60 to 65 percent from 2005 levels. Although the United States and Turkey are not party to the agreement because they have not declared their intention to withdraw from the 1992 UNFCCC, as Annex 1 countries of the UNFCCC, they will continue to be required to produce national communications and an annual greenhouse gas inventory.
 Recognizing that many developing countries and small island states that have contributed the least to climate change may suffer the most from its consequences, the Paris Agreement contains a plan for developed countries – and others that are “able to do so” – to continue to provide funds to help developing countries mitigate and increase their resilience to climate change. The agreement builds on financial commitments from the 2009 Copenhagen Accord, which aimed to increase public and private climate finance for developing countries to $100 billion a year by 2020. (To put this in perspective, global military spending in 2017 alone amounted to about $1.7 trillion, more than a third of which came from the United States.) The Copenhagen Compact also created the Green Climate Fund to help mobilize transformative financing with targeted public funds. The Paris Agreement set hope that the world would set a higher annual target by 2025 to build on the $100 billion target for 2020 and put in place mechanisms to achieve that scale. The agreement requires rich countries to meet a funding commitment of $100 billion per year beyond 2020 and use that number as a “lower limit” for additional support agreed until 2025. At the 2011 United Nations Climate Change Conference, the Durban Platform (and the ad hoc working group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action) was established with the aim of negotiating a legal instrument for climate action from 2020 onwards. The resulting agreement is expected to be adopted in 2015.  The Paris Agreement has a “bottom-up” structure unlike most international environmental treaties, which are “top-down” and are characterized by internationally defined standards and objectives that must be implemented by states.
 Unlike its predecessor, the Kyoto Protocol, which sets commitment targets with the force of law, the Paris Agreement, which emphasizes consensus-building, allows for voluntary, nationally defined targets.  Specific climate goals are therefore promoted politically and are not legally linked. .